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Homemade cucumbers grow in special conditions. They do not have access to many of the beneficial substances found in the open ground or greenhouse soil. Therefore, constant feeding of domestic cucumbers is the key to a good harvest. This crop requires a complex feed based on mineral and organic fertilizers.
Fertilizers for soil
To grow a good harvest of cucumbers on the balcony, you need to prepare the soil for future plantings. This requires containers with holes for water drainage and trays.
You can buy soil for homemade cucumbers at gardening stores. It already contains the ingredients needed to grow this crop.
You can prepare the soil yourself. Its composition includes earth, peat and humus in equal proportions.
Advice! You can add some sawdust to the soil for cucumbers.
At this stage, every 10 kg of soil is fertilized with a special mixture:
- nitrophoska - 30 g;
- wood ash - 0.2 kg;
- urea - 15 g.
Important! Fertilizers are applied to the soil to a depth of 4 cm.
Nitrofoska is a complex of mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. For cucumbers, a sulfate fertilizer is used, containing, in addition to the listed components, sulfur. This element aids in nitrogen absorption and protein formation.
Another nitrogen source for domestic cucumbers is urea. Due to nitrogen, the green mass of the plant is formed and the basis for the formation of a healthy bush is laid.
Advice! One plant requires up to 5 liters of soil.
After fertilization, the cucumbers are planted. Leave up to 30 cm between plants to avoid excessive planting density. The containers are placed in a warm place with good illumination.
Top dressing of seedlings
The first shoots of balcony cucumbers appear 5-7 days after planting, which depends on the variety and external conditions. The initial stage of their development requires a complex fertilizer consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium.
Seedlings require several types of dressings:
- 14 days after germination of cucumbers. For processing, a fertilizer is prepared, consisting of urea (10 g), superphosphate (10 g) and water (3 l). Top dressing is carried out by introducing the resulting liquid under the root of cucumbers. For each bush, 60 g of solution is enough.
- 10 days after the previous treatment. You can feed the plants with a special complex fertilizer intended for cucumbers and other vegetable crops. The fertilizer should contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For feeding, you can use the "Rossa" product, 25 g of which is diluted in 3 liters of water. Each plant requires 100 g of the resulting solution.
- After the next 10 days.
The processing of grown cucumber seedlings is carried out with a solution containing:
- nitrophoska - 10 g;
- ash - 30 g;
- water - 3 l.
The finished solution with fertilizers is consumed taking into account the norm, which is 200 g of the mixture for each bush.
Advice! Before applying fertilizer for cucumbers on the balcony, the soil must be well watered.
Pre-irrigation allows the beneficial components to be evenly distributed in the soil. Treatment is performed in the morning or evening when there is no direct exposure to the sun.
Processing for the ovary
30 days after planting, the cucumbers begin to bloom and the formation of an ovary. At this stage, difficulties often arise in the further development of cucumbers: inflorescences fall off, leaves turn yellow, fruit setting does not occur.
The reasons for the depressed state of cucumbers on the windowsill are:
- incorrect soil composition;
- lack of lighting;
- too high or low temperature in the house;
- insufficient or excessive watering;
- lack or excess of fertilizers.
During flowering, cucumbers need abundant nutrition. After the appearance of the first inflorescences, a complex fertilizer is applied to the soil:
- ammonium nitrate - 10 g;
- double superphosphate - 10 g;
- potassium sulfate - 10 g;
- water - 10 liters.
Attention! The nitrogen content during the formation of the ovary is reduced so that the cucumbers can direct their vitality to fruiting.
Ammonium nitrate serves as a source of nitrogen for plants, strengthens their immunity and protects against diseases.
Potassium sulfate increases the content of vitamins and sugar in fruits. Therefore, after treatment with this fertilizer, cucumbers with good taste grow.
Important! The irrigation solution is prepared in a separate container.
When working with mineral fertilizers, safety rules are observed. It is best to use protective equipment to avoid contact with skin, eyes or respiratory organs.
Fertilizing during fruiting
When the first fruits appear, cucumbers require special feeding. This includes both mineral and organic fertilizers. It is best to alternate several types of dressings.
When the first fruits begin to appear, the cucumbers are fed with ash. For 1 liter of water, 100 g of wood ash is required. Products from incineration of garbage, various waste, paper or building materials are not suitable for recharge.
The solution is preliminarily infused during the day. Then the ash is filtered, and the resulting liquid is used for watering cucumbers.
Advice! 1 bush requires 1 glass of ash-based solution.
After using the ash, the growth of cucumbers is accelerated and the activity of metabolic processes increases. This fertilizer contains potassium and calcium, which contribute to the formation of new ovaries.
Application of complex fertilizers
The next feeding of cucumbers is performed on the basis of nitrophoska. 3 liters of water requires 10 g of this fertilizer. Nitrofoska saturates plants with nutrients necessary for active fruiting.
Important! Nitrofoskoy treatment is carried out every 10 days by watering.
Another option for feeding cucumbers is the use of azofoska. Its composition is identical to nitrophosphate, however, phosphorus is contained in a water-soluble form.
Natural fertilizers are no less useful for ripening cucumber fruits. The simplest feeding method is the infusion of bird droppings. It is obtained by mixing with water in a 1: 2 ratio. After 2 hours, a liter of infusion is diluted with 10 liters of water and used for irrigation.
Advice! Poultry droppings are added dry to the soil, after which the cucumbers are thoroughly watered.
Other types of manure are suitable for feeding cucumbers. However, they need to be insisted throughout the week, which is not always possible at home.
Lack of nutrients negatively affects the appearance and fruiting of cucumbers. Determine the deficiency of a specific element can be visually based on special features.
Advice! By external signs, it is not always possible to unambiguously diagnose which substances are lacking in cucumbers. Then a complex fertilizer is applied (nitrophoska, ammofoska, etc.).
Lack of nitrogen
With a lack of nitrogen, indoor cucumbers look frail, stems become thinner, leaves droop, and small fruits are formed. Watering with urea-based fertilizer will help to solve the problem.
If nitrogen is present in excess, the foliage will turn dark green and the old leaves will bend. With an excessive intake of nitrogen, cucumbers die in a few days. You can solve the problem by daily watering or spraying with calcium nitrate.
Lack of potassium and calcium
You can determine the lack of potassium by the presence of a yellow border on the leaves. To process cucumbers, you will need 1 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
Calcium deficiency is reflected in young leaves, on which yellow spots appear. At the same time, the reverse side of the leaf acquires a purple tint. You can feed the cucumbers at home on the windowsill with ash, which is added to the soil or added to the spray solution.
Lack of phosphorus
If cucumbers grow dense, small leaves curled downward, then this is a sign of phosphorus deficiency. Another symptom is the presence of reddish veins.
Superphosphate in the amount of 1 tbsp will help to fill the lack of phosphorus. Fertilizer is diluted with 10 liters of water, after which the plants are watered.
Leaf processing has a positive effect on cucumbers at home. For work, you need a spray bottle with a fine spray.
Foliar dressing has its own advantages, among which are fast absorption of nutrients and low consumption of components.
Advice! Leaf processing of cucumbers is done in the morning or in the evening.
During the preparation of fertilizers, the established proportions must be observed. If the content of the substance exceeds the norm, then the cucumbers will burn the leaves.
Before fruiting, cucumbers are sprayed with a urea solution. It is obtained by dissolving 5 g of this substance in 3 liters of water.
Attention! Foliar feeding is especially important during the formation of the ovary.
Boron is responsible for the fruiting of cucumbers. This fertilizer promotes the absorption of calcium and synthesizes the production of active substances.
For processing cucumbers, a solution is prepared containing 1 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water. The procedure is performed every 10 days.
You can prepare an effective fertilizer for feeding home cucumbers from available tools. Folk processing means are completely safe for others and have a positive effect on the development of cucumbers.
Banana peels contain potassium, magnesium and calcium. Phosphorus and nitrogen are present in smaller quantities. This combination of elements contributes to the flowering of cucumbers and further fruiting.
Important! The banana peel must be dried on a battery, then chopped and added to the seedling soil.
On the basis of banana peels, you can make a watering agent, which must first be infused for 3 days. For 3 liters of water, 4 peels are used. Before watering cucumbers, water is added to the resulting fertilizer in a 1: 1 ratio.
Eggshell contains 93% calcium of an easily assimilable form, as well as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron and other trace elements.
You can get fertilizer for homemade cucumbers by crushing eggshells. The resulting mass is poured with water and left for three days. During this time, nutrients will enter the liquid. It is not recommended to cover the infusion with a lid.
Advice! For 3 liters of water, you will need a shell from 4 raw eggs.
The dried shells can be placed on the bottom of the cucumber growing container. Such a layer will ensure the circulation of the liquid without the formation of its stagnation.
Onion husks saturate the soil with nutrients and improve its structure. It contains carotene, phytoncides and vitamins. Carotene has antioxidant properties and increases the persistence of cucumbers in case of increased gas pollution in the city. Phytoncides help to cope with various fungi that provoke diseases.
Advice! Processing of cucumbers with onion infusion is performed twice a season.
For preventive purposes, a solution is prepared on onion peels: 2 cups of this component are poured into 2 liters of boiling water. The solution takes 2 days to infuse.
Onion infusion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2 and used for spraying.
When preparing the soil for planting homemade cucumbers, you can add coffee grounds to it. For these purposes, only roasted grains are suitable. If the grains have not been previously processed, then they will have a deoxidizing effect on the soil.
Coffee grounds improve the quality of the soil, making it looser, capable of allowing moisture and air to pass through. As a result, cucumbers receive nutrients: magnesium, nitrogen and potassium.
Glucose is a source of energy for living organisms. This substance is found in food sugar. For watering cucumbers, you can use sweet water obtained by dissolving 1 teaspoon of sugar.
Another option is to use glucose directly. It can be purchased as a tablet or solution over the counter. Top dressing is done every month.
Potatoes are a source of starch, glucose and organic acids for plants. The potato peelings are pre-dried, and then placed in the ground before planting homemade cucumbers. On their basis, you can prepare an infusion and apply it by irrigation.
To grow cucumbers at home, you need to provide them with access to nutrients. For this, complex processing of plants is carried out. Top dressing of cucumbers is done by watering and spraying the leaves.
Top dressing is required for cucumbers at every stage of development, starting from preparing the soil for sowing. Then fertilizers are applied when the first shoots appear, at the stage of flowering and fruiting. If the plants are in a depressed state, then additional processing is performed.